The flowers of chamomile contain 1–2% volatile oils including alpha-bisabolol, alpha-bisabolol oxides A & B, and matricin (usually converted to chamazulene). Other active constituents include the flavonoids apigenin, luteolin, and quercetin. These active ingredients contribute to chamomile’s anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, and smooth-muscle relaxing action, particularly in the gastrointestinal tract.
Topical applications of chamomile have been shown to be moderately effective in the treatment of eczema. One double-blind trial found it to be about 60% as effective as 0.25% hydrocortisone cream. Topical use of chamomile ointment was also found to successfully treat mild stasis ulcers and bed sores in elderly bedridden patients.